Twi Language

TWI LANGUAGE
The Twi language is one of the major languages of the Akan language family in West Africa. It is spoken predominantly in Ghana, West Africa, by about 85 percent of the Ghanaian population (both native and non-native speakers). Native Twi speakers constitute about 45 percent of the population of Ghana, whereas native Akan speakers, in general, form about 60 percent of that country’s population.
The Twi language was first recorded in the 1840s by European Presbyterian missionaries using the Latin alphabet. Since then, many research books and articles have been written in Twi by both Ghanaian and European authors. Twi is a language of scholarship as well as research in African studies. The linguistic beauty of Twi lies not only in its tonal system and its effect on the meanings of words and phrases but also in the literal meanings of roots which derive such words and phrases.

Twi I
In Twi I, students begin to develop communicative competence in Twi and expand their understanding of the culture(s) of Twi-speaking countries. Communicative competence is divided into three strands:
a) Interpersonal speaking and writing as interactive processes in which students learn to communicate with another Twi speaker.
b) Interpretive listening and reading as receptive processes in which students develop comprehension of Twi.
c) Presentational speaking and writing in which students focus on organization of thoughts and awareness of their audience in delivering information.
In level I Twi classes, students learn to communicate in real-life contexts about topics that are meaningful to them. To develop students’ communicative competence, emphasis is placed on use of Twi in the classroom as exclusively as possible and on use of authentic materials to learn about the language and culture. Grammar is integrated into instruction according to the vocabulary and structures needed in the various situations in which students are required to communicate. Through the language learning process, students develop a greater understanding of the structure of their own language and the unique aspects of their own culture. An important component of learning Twi is using the language in the real world beyond the classroom setting. One way this can be accomplished is through integration of technology into the classroom, as technology is an important means of accessing authentic information in Twi and in providing students the opportunity to interact with other speakers of Twi.
Interpersonal Communication
TWI.1
The student will exchange simple spoken and written information in Twi.
1. Use basic greetings, farewells, and expressions of courtesy both orally and in writing.
2. Express likes and dislikes, requests, descriptions, and directions.
3. Ask and answer questions about familiar topics.

Course Description:
The Elementary Twi I course can be taken to fulfill a language requirement, or for linguistic preparation to do research on Ghana/Africa-related topics. The course emphasizes communicative competence to enable the students to acquire linguistic and extra-linguistic skills in Twi. The content of the course is selected from various everyday life situations to enable the students to communicate in predictable common daily settings. Culture, as it relates to language use, is also a part of the course content. Students will acquire the speaking, listening, reading and writing skills at the mid-high novice level, based on the ACTFL scale. The mid-high novice level proficiency skills that the students will acquire constitute threshold capabilities of the second semester range of proficiency to prepare students for Elementary Twi II course materials.

TWI.2
The student will sustain brief oral and written exchanges in Twi, using familiar phrases and sentences.
1. Initiate, sustain, and close brief oral and written exchanges with emphasis on the present time.
2. Use proper formal and informal forms of address in familiar situations.
3. Use nonverbal communication and simple paraphrasing to convey and comprehend messages.
Course Description:
The Elementary Twi I course can be taken to fulfill a language requirement, or for linguistic preparation to do research on Ghana/Africa-related topics. The course emphasizes communicative competence to enable the students to acquire linguistic and extra-linguistic skills in Twi. The content of the course is selected from various everyday life situations to enable the students to communicate in predictable common daily settings. Culture, as it relates to language use, is also a part of the course content. Students will acquire the speaking, listening, reading and writing skills at the mid-high novice level, based on the ACTFL scale. The mid-high novice level proficiency skills that the students will acquire constitute threshold capabilities of the second semester range of proficiency to prepare students for Elementary Twi II course materials.

Interpretive Communication: Listening and Reading for Understanding
TWI.3
The student will understand simple spoken and written Twi presented through a variety of media and based on familiar topics.
1. Identify key words, cognates and some formulaic expressions when listening and reading.
2. Comprehend simple, culturally authentic oral and written materials, such as announcements, messages, and advertisements that use familiar vocabulary, grammar, and formulaic expressions with significant contextual support.
3. Follow simple instructions about classroom procedures and the use of technology.
Course Description:
The Elementary Twi I course can be taken to fulfill a language requirement, or for linguistic preparation to do research on Ghana/Africa-related topics. The course emphasizes communicative competence to enable the students to acquire linguistic and extra-linguistic skills in Twi. The content of the course is selected from various everyday life situations to enable the students to communicate in predictable common daily settings. Culture, as it relates to language use, is also a part of the course content. Students will acquire the speaking, listening, reading and writing skills at the mid-high novice level, based on the ACTFL scale. The mid-high novice level proficiency skills that the students will acquire constitute threshold capabilities of the second semester range of proficiency to prepare students for Elementary Twi II course materials.

TWI.4 The student will use verbal and nonverbal cues to understand simple spoken and written messages in Twi.
1. Differentiate among basic types of statements, questions, and exclamations.
2. Use basic culturally appropriate gestures, body language, and intonation to clarify the message.
Course Description:
The Elementary Twi I course can be taken to fulfill a language requirement, or for linguistic preparation to do research on Ghana/Africa-related topics. The course emphasizes communicative competence to enable the students to acquire linguistic and extra-linguistic skills in Twi. The content of the course is selected from various everyday life situations to enable the students to communicate in predictable common daily settings. Culture, as it relates to language use, is also a part of the course content. Students will acquire the speaking, listening, reading and writing skills at the mid-high novice level, based on the ACTFL scale. The mid-high novice level proficiency skills that the students will acquire constitute threshold capabilities of the second semester range of proficiency to prepare students for Elementary Twi II course materials.

Presentational Communication: Speaking and Writing
TWI.5
The student will present information orally and in writing in Twi, using a variety of familiar vocabulary, phrases, and structural patterns.
1. Present basic information gathered from informal conversations, class presentations, interviews, readings, and a variety of media sources.
2. Present basic information about topics such as self, family members and others, events, interests, school, recreational activities, and personal belongings with emphasis on present time.
3. Demonstrate increasing attention to accurate intonation and pronunciation.
4. Demonstrate increasing attention to accurate word order, punctuation diacritical marks, and spelling.
5. Write simple sentences on familiar topics in short paragraph style.

TWI.6
The student will present rehearsed material in Twi, including brief narratives, monologues, dialogues, poetry, and songs.
1. Use appropriate verbal and nonverbal techniques, such as voice inflection, gestures, and facial expressions.
2. Communicate coherent ideas, using appropriate visual and technological support.
Cultural Perspectives, Practices, and Products
TWI.7
The student will develop an awareness of common perspectives, practices, and products of Twi-speaking cultures.
Identify main viewpoints of Twi-speaking cultures, such as those relating to the concept of time, education, transportation, and the roles of family members.
2. Identify key customs and traditions of Twi-speaking cultures, such as greetings, celebrations, holiday practices, and forms of address that demonstrate politeness.
3. Identify important historical and contemporary individuals and groups associated with significant events from Twi-speaking cultures.
4. Identify some products of Twi-speaking cultures, such as natural and manufactured items, creative and fine arts, forms of recreation, pastimes, dwellings, regionally-specific language, and symbols.

TWI.8
The student will recognize that perspectives, practices, and products of Twi-speaking cultures studied are interrelated.
1. Recognize that the viewpoints, customs and traditions, and products of Twi speakers shape their cultures.
2. Identify major cities, Regions, and geographical features in Twi-speaking countries and the reasons they are significant in the history and cultures of those countries.
Making Connections through Language
TWI.9
The student will connect information about Twi and Twi-speaking culture(s) with concepts studied in other subject areas.
1. Identify the use of Twi and the Twi-speaking cultures in other subject areas.
2. Relate content from other subject areas to topics discussed in Twi class, such as the contributions of Twi-speaking immigrants and current events from Twi-speaking countries.
Linguistic and Cultural Comparisons
TWI.10
The student will compare basic elements of Twi to those of English and other languages.
1. Recognize cognates, genders, level-appropriate idioms, and differences in writing systems.
2. Recognize differences in sound systems including basic sound distinctions and intonation patterns and their effects on the communication of meaning.

TWI.11
The student will demonstrate understanding of the significance of culture through comparisons between Twi-speaking cultures and the cultures of the United States.
1. Compare patterns of behavior and interaction found in the United States with those found in Twi-speaking cultures.
2. Recognize differences in social practices and personal interactions among cultures.
3. Recognize the unique elements of the student’s own culture.

Interacting in School and Global Communities
TWI.12
The student will explore situations in which to use Twi language skills and cultural knowledge beyond the classroom setting for recreational, educational, and occupational purposes.
1. Find and present examples of the Twi language and the cultures of Twi-speaking countries or Regions gathered from interaction with Twi speakers, and authentic media, technology, or entertainment.
2. Use resources, such as individuals and organizations in the community or technology, to gain information about the Twi-speaking world.

Twi II

In Twi II, students continue to develop their communicative and cultural competence by interacting orally and in writing with other speakers of Twi, understanding oral and written messages in Twi, and making oral and written presentations in Twi. They begin to show a greater level of accuracy when using basic language structures, and they are exposed to more complex features of the Twi language. They continue to focus on communicating about their immediate world and daily activities. They read material on familiar topics and write short, directed compositions. Emphasis continues to be placed on use of Twi in the classroom as exclusively as possible, as well as on use of authentic materials to learn about the Twi language and culture(s).
Interpersonal Communication
TWI.1
The student will exchange spoken and written information and ideas in Twi.
1. Give and follow basic instructions.
2. Ask and answer questions about self, others, and the immediate environment, such as exchanges concerning people, things, plans, events, feelings, emotions, and geographic direction and location.
TWI.2
The student will initiate, sustain, and close brief oral and written exchanges in Twi, using familiar and recombined phrases and sentences.
1. Participate in brief oral and written exchanges that reflect present, past, and future time frames.
2. Use nonverbal communication and paraphrasing to convey and comprehend messages.
Interpretive Communication: Listening and Reading for Understanding
TWI.3
The student will understand basic spoken and written Twi presented through a variety of media and in familiar contexts.
1. Identify some details and key words when listening to and reading Twi.
2. Understand culturally authentic materials, such as announcements, messages, and advertisements in familiar contexts.
3. Understand and respond appropriately to simple instructions presented in informational materials, such as instructions for following recipes or applying technology.

TWI.4
The student will use verbal and nonverbal cues to interpret spoken and written texts in Twi.
1. Differentiate among increasingly complex types of statements, questions, and exclamations.
2. Interpret culturally appropriate gestures, body language, and intonation in order to clarify the message.

Presentational Communication: Speaking and Writing
TWI.5
The student will present information orally and in writing in Twi, combining learned and original language in connected sentences and paragraphs on familiar topics.
1. Relate in some detail the main ideas from level-appropriate authentic materials.
2. Present information, using structures that reflect present, past, and future time.
3. Demonstrate attention to accurate intonation and pronunciation.
4. Demonstrate attention to accurate word order, punctuation, diacritical marks, and spelling.

TWI.6
The student will present in Twi rehearsed and unrehearsed material, for example, skits, poems, plays, short narratives, and songs that reflect the culture of Twi-speaking Regions or countries.
1. Use appropriate verbal and nonverbal techniques, such as voice inflection, gestures, and facial expressions.
2. Communicate ideas in an organized manner, using appropriate visual and technological support.
Cultural Perspectives, Practices, and Products
TWI.7
The student will demonstrate understanding of the perspectives, practices, and products of Twi-speaking Regions and countries and the ways these cultural aspects are interrelated.
1. Participate in authentic or simulated cultural activities, such as family gatherings, holiday celebrations, and community events.
2. Identify and discuss patterns of behavior typically associated with Twi-speaking cultures, such as those relating to business practices, traditional religious customs, and family dynamics.
3. Explore the influence of the geography and history of Twi-speaking Regions and countries on cultural elements, such as food, clothing, dwellings, transportation, language, music, and art.
Making Connections through Language
TWI.8
The student will use information acquired in the study of Twi and information acquired in other subject areas to reinforce one another.
1. Give examples of the influence of the Twi language and Twi-speaking culture(s) on other subject areas, such as the use of Twi words in the English language or the contributions of individuals and groups from Twi-speaking Regions and countries.
2. Compare information acquired in other subject areas to topics discussed in Twi class, such as inventors, scientists, philosophers, musicians, artists, and athletes.

Linguistic and Cultural Comparisons
TWI.9
The student will develop a deeper understanding of the English and other languages through study of Twi.
1. Recognize critical sound distinctions and intonation patterns in the Twi and English languages and their effects on the communication of meaning.
2. Compare the diverse and unique aspects of vocabulary usage and structural patterns of Twi and English.
TWI.10
The student will demonstrate understanding of similarities and differences between the Twi-speaking world and their own.
1. Identify similarities and differences of traditions, such as those related to holidays, foods, family, and celebrations.
2. Identify similarities and differences of geography and their impact on aspects of culture, such as clothing, dwellings, transportation, recreation, food, and art.
3. Compare the use of idiomatic expressions in the target language and Twi.

Interacting in School and Global Communities
TWI.11
The student will apply Twi language skills and cultural knowledge in opportunities beyond the classroom setting for recreational, educational, and occupational purposes.
1. Explain aspects of Twi culture discovered through interaction with other Twi speakers, and authentic media, technology, or entertainment.
2. Use Twi-language resources, such as individuals and organizations in the community or accessible through technology, to reinforce cultural knowledge of the Twi-speaking world.

Twi III
In Twi III, students continue to develop their communicative and cultural competence by interacting orally and in writing with other speakers of Twi, understanding oral and written messages in Twi, and making oral and written presentations in Twi. They communicate on a variety of topics at a level commensurate with their study, using more complex structures in Twi and moving from concrete to more abstract concepts in a variety of time frames. They comprehend the main ideas of authentic materials that they listen to and read and are able to identify significant details when the topics are familiar. Students develop the ability to discuss in Twi topics related to historical and contemporary events and issues. Emphasis continues to be placed on use of Twi in the classroom as exclusively as possible, as well as on use of authentic materials to learn about the Twi language and culture(s).
Interpersonal Communication
TWI.1
The student will engage in original and spontaneous oral and written communications in Twi.
1. Express opinions, preferences, and desires, and elicit those of others.
2. Use level-appropriate vocabulary and structures to express ideas about topics and events found in a variety of authentic Twi-language sources.

TWIII.2
The student will initiate, sustain, and close oral and written exchanges in Twi, applying familiar vocabulary and structures to new situations.
1. Participate in sustained exchanges that reflect major time frames.
2. Exchange detailed information on familiar topics in a variety of interpersonal contexts.
3. Use nonverbal communication, paraphrasing, and circumlocution to convey and comprehend messages in level-appropriate Twi.

Interpretive Communication: Listening and Reading for Understanding
TWIII.3
The student will understand spoken and written Twi presented through a variety of media and based on new topics in familiar contexts.
1. Identify main ideas and pertinent details when listening to or reading materials such as live and recorded conversations, short lectures, podcasts, videos, reports, and literary selections.
2. Understand culturally authentic, level-appropriate materials that present new information in familiar contexts.
3. Understand and respond appropriately to instructions presented in more complex informational materials, such as instructions for public transportation or using technology.

Presentational Communication: Speaking and Writing
TWIII.4
The student will present information orally and in writing in Twi, recombining familiar elements to create original sentences in paragraphs that are increasingly complex.
1. Summarize and communicate orally and in writing main ideas and supporting details from a variety of authentic language materials.
2. Use major time frames, word order, and other level-appropriate language structures with increasing accuracy.
TWIII.5
The student will present in Twi student-created and culturally authentic products, such as stories, poems, songs and skits.
1. Produce well-organized spoken and written presentations appropriate to the type of audience and the purpose of the presentation.
2. Use various verbal and nonverbal presentational techniques, such as voice inflection, visual aids and technological support.
Cultural Perspectives, Practices, and Products
TWI.6
The student will examine in Twi the interrelationships among the perspectives, practices, and products of Twi-speaking cultures.
1. Examine how and why products such as natural and manufactured products, inventions, forms of recreation, pastimes, language, and symbols reflect practices and perspectives of Twi-speaking cultures.
2. Compare and contrast the viewpoints of Twi-speaking people and the ways these perspectives are reflected in their practices and products, such as political systems, art, architecture, music, and literature.
3. Investigate the interrelationship of geography and history of Twi-speaking cultures, such as the environment, conflicts, and diversity.
Making Connections through Language
TWI.7
The student will use Twi to reinforce and broaden understanding of connections between Twi and other subject areas.
1. Discuss in Twi how aspects of the Twi language and Twi-speaking culture(s) are found in other subject areas.
2. Using Twi, make connections between topics studied in other subject areas and those studied in the Twi class, such as the environment, forms of democracy, and emerging issues.
3. Use authentic Twi-language resources to expand knowledge acquired in other subject areas.

Linguistic and Cultural Comparisons
TWI.8
The student will strengthen knowledge of English and other languages through study and analysis of increasingly complex elements of Twi.
1. Demonstrate that language and meaning do not transfer directly from one language to another.
2. Demonstrate that vocabulary, linguistic structures, and tense usage in English may differ from those of Twi.
TWI.9
The student will investigate and discuss why similarities and differences exist within and among cultures.
1. Discuss the influences of historical and contemporary events and issues on Twi-speaking countries or Regions and the United States.
2. Compare and contrast aspects of Twi-speaking cultures, such as similarities and differences in language, art, architecture, music, literature, and Region with those of other cultures.
Interacting in School and Global Communities

TWI.10
The student will apply Twi skills and expand cultural understanding by accessing information beyond the classroom setting for recreational, educational, and occupational purposes.
1. Compare aspects of the Twi-speaking countries and regions obtained from interaction with Twi speakers, authentic media, technology, or entertainment.
2. Use Twi-language resources, such as individuals and organizations in the community or accessible through technology, to broaden cultural knowledge.

TWI IV
In Twi IV and above, students continue to develop their communicative and cultural competence in the interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational modes of communication. They are able to exchange and support opinions on a variety of topics related to historical and contemporary events and issues at a proficiency level commensurate with their study. They comprehend and produce information drawn from a variety of authentic sources. Students use Twi to access information in other subject areas and to compare and contrast cultural elements found in Twi-speaking countries or Regions with those found in their own. The standards for level IV focus on refinement of language skills and may be applied to levels V and above by adjusting specific course content. Emphasis continues to be placed on use of Twi in the classroom as exclusively as possible, as well as on use of authentic materials to learn about the Twi language and culture(s).

Interpersonal Communication

TWI.1
The student will engage in and discuss a variety of topics in both oral and written forms of communication.
1. Express and support opinions and elicit those of others.
2. Exchange personal reactions to spoken and written information including contemporary and historical events and global issues.
3. Exchange information from a variety of authentic media sources.

TWI.2
The student will demonstrate skills necessary to sustain extended oral and written exchanges in Twi.
1. Use a wide range of vocabulary, structures, and major time frames.
2. Exchange ideas clearly, based on level-appropriate themes.
3. Use paraphrasing, circumlocution, and other creative means to express and comprehend ideas.
Interpretive Communication: Listening and Reading for Understanding
TWI.3
The student will understand spoken and written Twi found in a variety of authentic sources.
1. Identify various literary elements, such as plot, theme, setting, and characters, in spoken and written texts.
2. Understand and respond appropriately to increasingly complex instructions presented in informational materials, such as a job application or a customs declaration.
Presentational Communication: Speaking and Writing

TWI.4
The student will relate information in Twi, combining learned and original language in oral and written presentations of extended length and complexity.
1. Present well-developed ideas on a variety of topics, using familiar vocabulary and language structures and with minimal errors in spelling, punctuation, and pronunciation.
2. Use style, language, and tone appropriate to the audience and the purpose of the presentation.
TWI.5
The student will produce and present in Twi original essays, poetry, plays, podcasts, and stories.
1. Produce well-organized presentations, including current event reports and critiques.
2. Use appropriate verbal and nonverbal presentational techniques, including visual aids and technological support.
Cultural Perspectives, Practices, and Products
TWI.6
The student will analyze in Twi how various perspectives reflect the practices and products of Twi-speaking cultures.
1. Discuss how topics such as global challenges, advancement of technology, and diversity issues illustrate the viewpoints, patterns of behavior, and products of Twi-speaking cultures.
2. Engage in authentic or simulated situations that demonstrate understanding of culturally appropriate practices.
Making Connections through Language
TWI.7
The student will demonstrate increased understanding of the connections between content studied in Twi class and content studied in other subject areas.
1. Discuss and evaluate examples of the Twi language and Twi-speaking culture(s) found in other subject areas such as global challenges, advancement of technology, and diversity issues.
2. Compare and contrast topics studied in other subject areas and those studied in Twi class, such as personal and public identities and contemporary life.
3. Use authentic Twi-language resources to analyze knowledge related to other subject areas. Linguistic and Cultural Comparisons
TWI.8
The student will expand understanding of English and other languages through study and analysis of increasingly complex elements of Twi.
1. Examine local, regional, and national differences in sound systems, pronunciation, vocabulary, and usage in Twi-speaking countries and Regions and in the United States.
2. Compare linguistic elements of Twi and English, such as time, tense, and mood, and understand how each language uses different grammatical structures to express these relationships.
TWI.9
The student will identify and discuss in level-appropriate Twi aspects of cultural similarities and differences in social, economic, and political relationships in the global community.
1. Evaluate the role of culture in the development of relationships between the United States and Twi-speaking countries and Regions.
2. Explain how members of Twi-speaking culture(s) perceive the United States.
3. Examine local, regional, and national differences in the cultures of Twi-speaking countries and Regions and their own.

Interacting in School and Global Communities

TWI.10
The student will apply Twi language skills and expand cultural understanding in opportunities beyond the classroom setting for recreational, educational, and occupational purposes.
1. Analyze aspects of Twi-speaking cultures researched from interaction with Twi speakers, authentic media, and technology to deepen cultural understanding.
2. Use Twi-language resources, such as individuals and organizations in the community or accessible through technology, to increase cultural understanding.